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Journal of Conservation Science 2008;23(0):11-24.
Published online September 20, 2008.
익산 미륵사지석탑 화강암의 풍화에 의한 물리화학적 특성변화
양희제, 한민수, 김사덕, 이찬희
Physicochemical Variation by Weathering Degree of Granite from the Mireuksaji Temple Stone Pagoda, Iksan, Korea
Hee Jae Yang, Min Su Han, Sa Dug Kim, Chan Hee Lee
초 록
미륵사지석탑의 보존처리를 위해 화강암의 풍화에 따른 물리적 성능시험과 화학적 조성변화를 검토하였다. 자연 풍화된 미륵산 화강암을 수습하여 풍화상태에 따른 분류기준과 암석해머시험에 따라 강도를 구분하였다. 비파괴 암석해머시험 강도와 초음파 속도를 비교한 결과, 각각의 강도 측정값은 비례하였다. 시료의 흡수율은 1.68~0.20%이며 신선한 F-형은 자연 포화되지 않았고 WW-형은 자연 포화되었으나 시간이 많이 소요되었다. 흡수율은 풍화정도에 따라 SW-형, MW-형, HW-형으로 가며 순차적으로 증가했다. CW-형은 풍화단계 시료들 중에 서 흡수현상이 현저하게 달랐다. 염색시험에서는 F-형과 WW-형의 경우 정장석만이 염색되었고, SW-형과 MW-형에서는 사장석의 염색이 특징적이었으며 HW-형과 CW-형은 석영의 균열부로 염색이 확장되었다. 분류기준에 따른 조암광물의 변화는 3등급으로 대별할 수 있다. XRD 분석결과, 조암광물 중 알바이트가 현저하게 감소되었다. EMEDX로 조암광물 중 흑운모, 사장석, 정장석을 구성하는 성분의 평균변화를 관찰한 결과, 신선한 시료에 비하여 풍화도가 높은 시료에서 흑운모는 Al2O3, K2O, Na2O는 증가하고 CaO, MgO는 감소하였으며, 사장석은 CaO, K2O는 감소하고 Na2O는 증가하였다. 정장석은 Al2O3가 약간 증가했고 K2O, Na2O는 감소되었다. 풍화단계별 시료를 파쇄하여 양이온의 용출 정도를 검토한 결과, 조암광물 구성성분 중 CaO, Na2O, K2O, MgO가 화학적 변화도가 높았으며, 풍화도 WW-형과 CW-형에서 양이온의 변화도가 높게 나타났다. 이 결과는 익산 미륵사지석탑을 구성하는 부재의 보존처리 방안을 수립하는데 중요한 자료로 이용될 것이다.
중심어: 화강암, 풍화도, 보존처리
ABSTRACT
A physical characteristics and chemical compositions change by weathering on the granite were examined for the conservation treatment of the Mireuksaji temple stone pagoda. The natural weathered granite was collected from the Mt. Mireuk, and divided into the classification standards based on weathering degrees and strength measured by rock-test hammer. The results from comparison of the strength measured by undestructive rock-test hammer and the strength values converted from ultrasonic velocity showed that each strength measurement value was proportionate. The water absorption of the sample was 1.68 to 0.20%. The F-type of fresh rock was not naturally saturated and the WW-type was naturally saturat ed but took quite a long time. The water absorption was increased gradually in order of SW-type, the MW-type and the HW-type according to weathering condition. The CW-type samples showed the highest water absorption among the weathered classification samples. Through dyeing test, it was found out that only the feldspar was dyed out of the F-type and the WW-type. The SW-type and the MW-type were distinguished by the fact that plagioclase being dyed. And dyed area was expanded to quartz crack in HW-type and CW-type. Physical change by weathering of the rock-forming minerals could be classified with 3 grades. Through the XRD analysis, albite among the rock-forming mineral showed remarkable decrease. SEM-EDX analysis of the component change in the rock-forming minerals such as biotite, plagioclase, and orthoclase, showed that in case of highly-weathered grade samples compared with fresh samples, contents of the Al2O3, K2O, Na2O increase and CaO, MgO decrease in the biotite, the CaO, K2O increase and Na2O decrease in the plagioclase, the Al2O3 a little increase and K2O, Na2O decrease in the orthoclase. The results of extracted cation analysis using the powder samples of each weathering grade, the CaO, Na2O, K2O and MgO are highly chemical variations in rock forming minerals and positive variation show high in the weathering grade of the WW-type and CW-type. This research will be used as an importance data to establish a plan for conservation treatment of composed stone in the Mireuksaji temple stone pagoda.
Key Words: Granite, Weathering degree, Conservation treatment


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