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Journal of Conservation Science 2012;28(4):353-366.
Published online December 31, 2012.
완주 송광사 소조사천왕상의 재질특성 및 제작기법 해석
한두루, 이찬희, 조영훈
Interpretation of Making Techniques and Material Characteristics for Molding Clay of Four Guardian Statues in Wanju Songkwangsa Temple, Korea
Doo Roo Han, Chan Hee Lee, Young Hoon Jo
초 록
이 연구에서는 완주 송광사 소조사천왕상의 제작기법을 해석하였으며, 소조토의 산지를 추정하여 동일재료로 보존처리 및 복원할 수 있는 기초자료를 확보하였다. 사천왕상에 사용된 소조토는 층위별로 다양한 재질적 특성을 나타냈다. 원소조토로 추정되는 초벌층과 중벌층은 성인적으로 동일한 토양이 사용되었으며, 마감층은 약간의 차이를 보였으나 거의 유사한 토양으로 확인되었다. 그러나 보수층은 모든 분석결과에서 원소조토와 재질특성이 일치하지 않았다. 감마선 촬영 결과, 사천왕상의 제작은 심목과 부목을 강선과 ‘ㄷ’자 꺽쇠, 못, 새끼줄 등으로 연결하여 뼈대를 형성하고, 이 위에 소조토를 조성한 것으로 나타났다. 소조토의 산지해석 결과, 추정산지 일대 토양은 마감층에 사용된 토양과 동일기원으로 나타나 보존처리용 재료로 적합할 것으로 판단된다. 이 결과는 소조상의 제작기법 연구에 기여할 것으로 기대된다.
중심어: 완주 송광사, 사천왕상, 소조토, 제작기법, 재질특성, 감마선 촬영
ABSTRACT
This study was interpreted the making techniques of the Four Guardian Statues in Wanju Songkwangsa Temple, and retained basic data necessary for conservation treatment and restoration of the same material by estimating the soil source. The molding clay used in the Statues showed a variety of material characteristics according to different layers. The first and mid layers estimated as the original molding clay are composed of the same kind of soil. The soil of the finish layer was also confirmed to be genetically similar to that of the first and mid layers, despite little discrepancy. The former restoration layer was inconsistent in material characteristics with the original molding clay in every result of analysis. As a result of gamma radiography, making techniques of the Statues were able to identify the figure of the frame connecting the woods of main pillar frame to sub-frame and steel wire with ㄷ-clamp, nails and straw ropes, and the molding clay constructed upon the frame. Meanwhile, provenance interpretation confirmed that the soil of the estimated provenance area is of the same origin as the soil of the finish layer, and therefore is an appropriate material for conservation treatment. This result will contribute to the research on making techniques of the molding clay Statues.
Key Words: Wanju Songkwangsa Temple, Four Guardian Statues, Molding clay, Making techniques, Material characteristics, Gamma radiography


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