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J. Conserv. Sci > Volume 35(6); 2019 > Article
Journal of Conservation Science 2019;35(6):573-587.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12654/JCS.2019.35.6.01    Published online December 31, 2019.
철산화물 안료 원료와 번조조건에 따른 철화분청사기의 유약 발색 연구
김지혜1, 한민수1, 정영유2, 최성재2
1한국전통문화대학교 문화유산전문대학원 문화재수리기술학과
2한국전통문화대학교 일반대학원 전통미술공예학과
Study on Color Formation of Cheolhwa Buncheong Stoneware Glaze by Pigment Raw Materials of Iron Oxides and Firing Conditions
Ji Hye Kim1, Min Su Han1, Young Yu Jeong2, Sung Jae Choi2
1Department of Heritage Conservation and Restoration, Graduate School of Cultural Heritage, Korea National University of Cultural Heritage, Buyeo 33115, Korea
2Department of Traditional Arts and Crafts, Graduate School, Korea National University of Cultural Heritage, Buyeo 33115, Korea
Correspondence:  Min Su Han, Tel: +82-41-830-7381, 
Email: dormer@nuch.ac.kr
Received: 7 September 2019   • Revised: 11 October 2019   • Accepted: 24 November 2019
초 록
본 연구는 전통적인 철화분청사기 안료를 재현하기 위하여 국내산 자철석과 점토, 비가소성 원료를 혼합하여 재현시편을 제작하고, 발색이 양호한 30개의 시편들을 과학적으로 분석함으로써 유약의 발색특성을 알아보고자 하였다. 안료의 주원료인 자철석은 1,200℃의 환원 환경에서 짙은 흑색으로 발색하는 안료이나, 부가적으로 첨가되는 석회 성분과 반응하여 1,230℃ 산화 환경에서는 녹황색 계열로 변색된다. 적철석은 소성 온도 및 환경에 크게 영향을 받지 않으나 Fe를 10 wt% 이상 함유한 점토와 혼합하였을 때는 짙은 흑색으로 발색한다. 안료의 유동성은 R2O3/RO2 값에 의해 결정되며, 이는 발색에도 영향을 미친다. 미세조직 관찰에서 안료의 입자크기와 소성 환경에 따라 유약층의 발색과 철산화물 결정들이 일부 다른 양상을 보인다. 자철석을 원료로 한 안료는 1,200℃ 산화 환경에서는 유약층과 분장토의 경계면에 철산화물이 응집체 형태로 존재하며, 흑갈색으로 발색하지만, 환원 환경 소성에서는 철산화물의 응집체가 존재하지 않고 유약층에 균질하게 분포하며, 짙은 흑색으로 발색한다. 반면, 적철석을 기반으로한 안료는 산화 환경에서 유약층내 수지상 조직을 형성하며, 흑색으로 발색한다.
중심어: 철화분청, 자철석, 적철석, 철산화물, 발색
In this study, reproducing specimens were made from mixing domestically produced magnetite, clay and non-plastic raw materials to reproduce the pigments used in the manufacture of traditional cheolhwa buncheong stoneware. In order to reveal the color fomation of glaze, 30 specimens with good color development were analyzed scientifically. Magnetite, which is the main raw material of the pigment, is a pigment capable of creating a dark black color in a reducing environment at 1,200℃. However, it reacts with the additionally added lime component and discolors to greenish yellow color in oxidizing environment at 1,230℃. Hematite is not significantly affected by the firing temperature and environment, but develops a dark black color when mixed with clay with iron content of more than 10%. The fluidity of the pigment is determined by R2O3/RO2 value, which also affects the color development. In the microtexture observation, the color formation of the glaze layer and the iron oxide crystals identified some differences depending on the particle size of the pigment and the firing environment. Reproduced specimens made of magnetite are present in the form of aggregates of iron oxide in the interface between glaze layer and slip layer in the oxidizing environment at 1,200℃. However, in the reducing environment, aggregates of iron oxides do not exist in the reproduced specimens, and they are homogeneously distributed in the glaze layer and formed a dark black color. In contrast, hematite-based specimens form dendritic structures in the glaze layer in an oxidizing environment and develop black.
Key Words: Cheolhwa buncheong, Magnetite, Hematite, Iron oxide, Color formation
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