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Journal of Conservation Science 2010;26(3):277-294.
Published online September 20, 2010.
서산마애삼존불상의 정밀 손상도 평가와 보존환경 분석
이선명, 이찬희, 김지영
Detailed Deterioration Evaluation and Analysis of Conservation Environment for the Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (Rock-carved Triad Buddha in Seosan), Korea
Sun Myung Lee, Chan Hee Lee, Jiyoung Kim
초 록
서산마애삼존불상(국보 제84호)을 이루는 암석은 담회색을 띠는 중립질 흑운모 화강암이며 부분적으로 페그마타이트 및 석영 세맥이 관찰된다. 삼존불이 조각된 암반은 전면에 걸쳐 불규칙적인 불연속면의 발달로 크기와 모양이 다양한 암괴를 형성하고 있으며, 암반 사면의 안정성이 취약한 것으로 나타났다. 훼손도 진단 결과, 수직 및 수평 절리가 밀집된 부분을 중심으로 물리적 풍화와 표면변색에 의해 훼손이 가중된 상태를 보인다. 이를 삼존불의 전체 면적대비 훼손율 42.7%에 비교했을 때, 물리적 풍화는 9.6%, 변색은 33.1%로 변색에서 높은 점유율을 보였다. 초음파 측정 결과, 삼존불은 전반적으로 심한 풍화단계(HW)에 있으며 삼존불에 발달하고 있는 불규칙한 절리계를 따라 약 1,000㎧ミ의 저속도대가 분포하여 구성 암석이 약화된 것을 알 수 있다. 삼존불 보호각 내외부의 상대습도는 사계절 모두 평균 70% 이상을 기록하며, 95% 이상의 고습도 영역에서 높은 빈도수를 나타냈다. 이 고습도 환경은 강수와 함께 암석 표면에 결로를 발생시켜 수분을 공급하며 수분의 침투와 함수율이 높은 균열 및 절리대를 따라 물리적 , 화학적, 생물학적 풍화를 진전시키는 것으로 사료된다. 따라서 삼존불의 과학적 보존을 위해 수분문제를 비롯하여 지속적인 보존환경 모니터링을 통한 환경제어 방안이 필요할 것으로 판단된다
중심어: 서산마애삼존불상, 절리, 구조안정성, 표면변색, 보존환경, 수분, 보호각
ABSTRACT
The Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (National Treasure No. 84) consists of light gray and coarse to mediumgrained biotite granite with partly developed pegmatite and quartz vein. The host rock is divided into dozens of rock blocks with various shape along irregular discontinuity plane. The evaluation results of discontinuity systems reveal that the host rock were exposed to instable sloping environments. Results of deterioration diagnosis show that the degree of damage has been made worse by physical weathering and surface discoloration laying stress on part that vertical and horizontal joints are massed. Generally, deterioration rate of the triad Buddha surface cover with 42.7%, however, the rate of physical weathering and surface discoloration are subdivided to 9.6% and 33.1%, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements indicate that the triad Buddha was reached highly weathered grade in general. And the rock material was weaken to show low velocity zone of 1,000㎧along irregular joint systems. Indoor and outdoor mean relative humidity of the shelter was recorded more than 70% during every season, and high frequency appears in high relative humidity range over 95%. Such environments seem to have produced dew condensation on the rock surface with rainfall and supply water, promoted physical, chemical and biological weathering along crack and joint, resulting in high permeation of water and percentage of water content. Therefore, it is judged that for scientific conservation of the triad Buddha it needs environment control through persistent preservation environment monitoring including water problem.
Key Words: Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang, Joint, Structure stability, Surface discoloration, Conservation environment, Moisture, Shelter.


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