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J. Conserv. Sci > Volume 38(3); 2022 > Article
Journal of Conservation Science 2022;38(3):217-233.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12654/JCS.2022.38.3.04    Published online June 22, 2022.
경주 금척리 유적 출토 철기의 용도별 분류에 따른 제작기법 고찰
유하림1, 조남철2, 신용비3
1국립문화재연구원 문화재보존과학센터
2국립공주대학교 문화재보존과학과
3국립중앙박물관 보존과학부
A Study of Manufacturing Techniques based on Classification by Uses of Excavated Iron Objects from the Remains in Geumcheok-ri, Gyeongju
Ha Rim You1, Nam Chul Cho2, Yong Bi Shin3
1Cultural Heritage Conservation Science Center, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Korea
2Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Science, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea
3Conservation Science Department, National Museum of Korea, Seoul 04383, Korea
Correspondence:  Nam Chul Cho, Tel: +82-41-850-5870, 
Email: nam1611@kongju.ac.kr
Received: 13 April 2022   • Revised: 13 May 2022   • Accepted: 16 May 2022
초 록
경주 금척리 유적은 5세기 후반에서 6세기 전반에 조성된 금척리고분군(사적 제43호)과 매우 연접하며, 유적이 위치한 지역은 그 일대의 유력 지배세력의 무덤으로 알려져 있다. 신라 성장에 일익을 담당했던 인근 유적과도 밀접한 관련성이 있을 것으로 추정되는 경주 금척리 유적에서 출토된 철기를 대상으로 금속학적 방법론을 도입한 연구를 진행하였다. 철기의 용도에 따른 제작기법 차이를 확인하기 위해 용도별로 분류하여 8점을 선정하고, 미세조직 및 비금속개재물을 연구하였다. 분석 결과 제작 공정은 탄소함량이 높은 소재를 사용하여 형상을 단조하는 방법과 탄소함량이 낮은 소재를 사용하여 형상 단조만을 하는 기법, 형상 단조 후 필요에 따라 강도를 높이기 위한 침탄작업을 실시하는 기법이 적용된 것으로 확인된다. 이후 부위별 기능을 고려한 제강법과 열처리기술을 선택적으로 적용하여 기계적 성질을 향상시켰으며 제련 공정에는 저온환원법이 적용되었을 가능성이 크다. 또한 경주 중심부와 외곽에 위치한 유적에서 출토된 철기 유물과 비교해본 결과 제련 및 제작기술에서 상호 유사한 것이 확인된다.
중심어: 금척리, 철기, 미세조직, 비금속개재물, 제작기술
ABSTRACT
The remains found in Geumcheok-ri, Gyeongju are located in close proximity to the Ancient Tombs in Geumcheok-ri, Gyeongju (Historic Site) which were built between the late 5th and early 6th centuries, and these tombs are known to belong to the powerful rulers of that area. Using metallurgical techniques, this study was conducted on the iron objects obtained from the excavated remains in Geumcheok-ri, Gyeongju which are presumed to have a close relation to the nearby ruins that played an important role in the growth of Silla. To identify differences in manufacturing techniques based on the purpose of the iron objects, eight objects were selected after classifying them by use and the microstructure and non-metallic inclusions were investigated. The analyses results confirmed that the manufacturing process involved forging iron with a high or low carbon content to produce a particular shape, and that the carburization process was applied to iron post forging a shape to increase its strength when necessary. The mechanical properties were improved by selectively applying the steelmaking method and the heat treatment technique considering the functions of the parts, and the low temperature reduction was applied to the smelting process. Furthermore, in comparison with the iron objects excavated from the remains located in the center of Gyeongju and its outskirts, it is confirmed that there is similarity in the smelting and manufacturing techniques between these objects.
Key Words: Geumcheok-ri, Iron objects, Microstructure, Nonmetallic inclusions, Metallurgy


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